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REFERENCE BOOK 





fUARRY SA 

OF DRILLING TAKEN 



CI AY OR SHALE 

—77 



BLASTED LIMESTONE 





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GYRATORY CRUSHER 

• "OOOOO 



ROCK STORAGE 

ClAY, SHALE OR 
SLAG STORAGE 



rSISBBi 



Here is pictured the process required to change clay, rock 
and other raw materials into portland cement — the most 
versatile and enduring of modern building materials. 
Cement is the active ingredient in concrete, stucco and 
mortar, which have more than a thousand common uses 
in the construction field, providing safe, economical roads 




—bridges — dams — buildings — indispensable to the well- 
being of every American. Although more than eighty steps 
are required to make cement, it is sold at a factory price 
of a fraction of a cent a pound — less we are told, than that 
of any other manufactured product. 




CtMTRi; JvAl 

~--~ -*- i mm mills 

GYPSUM ADD EO MERE 



ere CEMENT STORAGE 



Cement and 
Concrete 

REFERENCE BOOK 



193 4 



PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 

A National Organization to Improve and Extend the Uses of Concrete 
3 3 WEST GRAND AVENUE • CHICAGO 



Atlanta, Ga. 
Austin, Texas 
Columbus, Ohio 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Lansing, Mich. 



DISTRICT OFFICES 

Lincoln, Neb. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Washington, D. C. 











o 




UJ 




rf*5 




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25 






l-\ £- 






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r~~*» ^^ AiBUkX 







GROWTH OF PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 
IN AMERICA 



IN 1824, Joseph Aspdin, a brick- 
layer of Leeds, England, sought 
a better bond for his masonry. He 
combined certain quantities of lime 
and clay, burned them in a kiln, 
pulverized the resulting mass and 
used it to make mortar and con- 
crete. The concrete so resembled 
the stone quarried on the Isle of 
Portland that Aspdin called his 
base material "portland" cement 
and patented it. 

Until the first portland cement 
was made in this country in 1872 
by David O. Saylor in the Lehigh 
Valley district of Pennsylvania, all 
portland cement was imported from 
Europe. Even after Saylor had 
ed that American made cement 
was as good as the European prod- 
uct, builders continued for many 
years to use foreign cement in large 
quantities. 

Saylor, a maker of natural ce- 
ments, began his experiments with 
Portland cement by burning rocks 
in his own kitchen. John K. Shinn, 
another Pennsylvanian, also made 
cement with makeshift machinery. 
Thomas Millen, a concrete pipe 
maker, decided $9.12 a barrel was 
too much to pay for portland ce- 
ment and opened his own mill in 
Indiana in 1876. 

Foreign portland cement and 
domestic natural cement were long 
competitors of the American made 
Portlands, and it was not until 1897 
that the use of American cement 



exceeded importations from Europe. 
In 1890, sixteen plants produced 
335,500 barrels of portland cement 
against 7,082,000 barrels of natural 
cement and imports of 1,940,186 
barrels of foreign portland cement. 
Ten years later, native portland ce- 
ment production was 8,482,020 
barrels. Imports were declining 
rapidly and domestic natural ce- 
ment production was falling off to 
a great extent. 

Now, with a yearly capacity of 
more than two barrels for each in- 
dividual, American cement mills 
produce and the nation uses more 
cement than any other country in 
the world, and in normal times al- 
most as much as all the rest of the 
world combined. The commodity, 
little resembling Aspdin's early dis- 
covery, has been developed into a 
superior, highly standardized prod- 
uct. 

With a total capital investment 
exceeding $576,000,000, there are 
now 166 cement mills in the United 
States capable of producing 269,- 
000,000 barrels a year. Production 
in 1933, due to stagnant conditions 
throughout the construction indus- 
try, totaled less than 64,000,000 
barrels. 

Portland cement is made in 35 
states, the largest producers being 
Pennsylvania, California, New 
York, Illinois, Missouri, Michigan 
and Iowa. The map on page 2 shows 
locations of these plants. 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



'~ 



The Portland Cement Industry in the United States 

(Based on 1933 figures of the U. S. Bureau of Mines and 
other authoritative sources) 

1933 

Production (Barrels) 63,473,189 

Value of Product* $84,419,341 

Number of Operating Companies 93 

Number of Plants 166 

Number of States Represented 35 

Estimated Capacity (Barrels) 269,387,000 

Per Cent of Capacity Utilized 23.6 

Total Capital Invested $576,000,000 

Investment per Barrel of Capacity $2.14 

Number of Wage Earners 20,000 

Plant Investment per Worker $28,800 

Wages and Salaries $18,279,000 

Cost of Materials and Supplies $26,932,000 

Per Capita Consumption, U. S. (Barrels) 0.50 

*Based on average factory value per barrel in bulk reported by U. S. Bureau of Mines. 



I 






Materials Required Annually for the Manufacture 
of Portland Cement 

(Figures based on 1933 production, U. S. Bureau of Mines' and 
Manufacturers' estimates) 

duce each barrel of portland cement. 

The cement industry is the larg- 
est user of pulverized coal, prac- 
tically all that noted in the table 
at the left being pulverized and 
burned in the kilns. This estimate 
does not include coal required to 
produce power purchased from 
outside generating stations. 

The industry ranks as one of the 
highest among all industries in total 
horsepower required to operate its 
grinding and other machinery. The 
power installation needed for a sin- 
gle large cement plant produces 
enough electricity to supply a city 
of 150,000 population with power 
and light. 



Coal, tons 


3,000,000 


Fuel oil, barrels 


1,620,000 


Natural gas, cubic feet . 22,000,000,000 


Cloth sacks required in stock 


48,600,000 


Cloth sacks for replacements 


10,800.000 


Paper bags 


72,000,000 


Wire to tie sacks, miles 


17,000 


Lubricants (oil and grease), 




pounds 


12.300.000 


Belting, miles 


72 


Explosive, pounds 


8,300,000 


Gypsum, tons 


350,000 


Fire-brick for kiln lining, 




brick 


2,050,000 



More than 600 lb. of raw ma- 
terials are needed to make a single 
barrel of cement weighing 376 lb. 
In addition, some 110 lb. of coal or 
equivalent fuel are required to pro- 



REFERENCE BOOK 



1934 



Production of Principal Cement-Producing States 

(As Reported by U. S. Bureau of Mines) 













Increase Rank 




Active 


Plants 


Barrels 


or De- 


in Total 


State 










crease, 


Produc- 




1932 


1933 


1932 


1933 


1933 


tion 


Alabama 


6 


6 


1,453 


1,968,513 




11 


California 


11 


11 


5,481,942 


7,16 


• 31 


2 


Illinois 


1 


4 


5, 480, 813 


1,853 


-27 


4 


Iowa 


5 


5 


4,270,739 


3,044,008 


-29 


7 




7 


6 


2,29 


11,182 




10 


Michigan 


13 


10 


4,29 


12,84 1 


15 


6 


Miss- 




5 




3,798,662 


10 




New York 


10 


10 


6,01 


4,204,730 




3 


Ohio 


10 


10 


4,00. 


3 1 ,008 




9 




27 










1 






6 


l i M 


1,34 






Texas 


9 


9 


f8,167 


'),070 


21 


8 


Othei 


47 
160 


46 


18,115 

740,945 


14,090,988 
63,47 






Tot 







Cement Industry Is Important Railroad Shipper 
of Manufactured Products 

records (1930) on file at I 
aerce Commission, Washington) 

Rank Carload. 

1 Petroleum cd, and all other gaso 1,608,363 

Iron and iteel, rated 5th in > 

(Also tin and tcrneplate) 

590 
\ Automobiles (passenger) 

I rs, N.O.S | 390 

I i oil, road and petroleum oils. N.O.S 32* 

7. Snip iron and scrap steel 

H Brick, N OS . and building tile 

Automobiles and autotrucks. K D tnd parts, N.O.S 205 

10 B immoo 1 1 1,605 

1 I Canned food products, N.O.S 

hinery and boilers .896 

Lubricating oils and greasei l6o 

Iron and steel pipe and fittings, NO S 
K D Knocked down. 



Year 



1870-79 
1880 
1890 



CEMENT AND CONOR E T : 



THE PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 11 

(Figures from U. S. Geological Survey and 
U. S. Bureau of Mines) 



No. of Per Cent of Av. Fac- 

Produc- Producing Estimated Capacity Value tory Value 

tion Plants Capacity Utilized of per Barrel 

(Barrels) (a) (Barrels) (b) Product in Bulk 



82,000 

42,000 

335,500 



16 



$ 246,000 
126,000 

704,050 



$3.00 (d) 
3.00 (d) 

2 09 



1895 
1900 

1901 



990,324 

8,482,020 

12,711,225 



22 
50 
56 



1,586,830 

9,280,525 

12,532,360 



1 60 
1.09 
99 



1902 
1903 
1904 



17,230,644 
22,342,973 
26,505,881 



65 
78 
83 



20,864,078 
27,713,319 
23,355,119 



1.21 

1.24 
0.88 



1905 
1906 
1907 



35,246,812 
46,463,424 
48,785,390 



79 

84 
94 



140,000 (c) 
55,000,000 88. 



33,245,867 
52,466,186 
53,992,551 



94 
1.13 
1.11 



1908 
1909 
1910 



51,072,612 
64,991,431 

76,549,951 



98 
108 
111 



60,000,000 
93,500,000 
97,670,000 



85 1 
68 4 
78 3 



43,547,679 
52,858,354 
68,205,800 



0.85 
813 
891 



1911 
1912 
1913 


78,528,637 
82,438,096 

92,097,131 


115 
110 
113 


112,500,000 
110,000,000 
115,000,000 


69 8 
74 9 
80.1 


66,248,817 
67,016,928 
92,557,617 


0.844 

813 

1 005 


1914 
1915 
1916 


88,2 

85,914,907 

91,521,198 


110 
106 
113 


115,000,000 
129,800,000 
133,679,650 


76.7 
66.2 
68.5 


81,789,368 

73,886,820 

100,947,881 


0.927 

0.86 

1.103 


1917 
1918 
1919 


92,814,202 
71,081,663 
80,777,935 


117 
114 
111 


136,750,322 

137,601,200 
134,092,700 


67.9 

51 7 
60 2 


125,670,430 
113,730,661 
138,130,269 


1.354 
1 596 
1.71 


1920 
1921 
1922 


100,023,245 

98,842,049 
114,789,984 


117 
115 
118 


146,400,000 
144,354,000 
146,203,000 


68 3 
68 5 
78 5 


202,046,955 

186,811,473 
202,030,372 


2 02 
1 89 
1 76 


1923 
1924 
1925 


137,460,238 
149,358,109 
161,658,901 


126 
132 
138 


161,858,000 
175,100,000 
193,558,000 


84 9 

85 3 
83 5 


261,174,452 
270,338,177 
286,136,255 


1 90 
1 81 
1.77 


1926 

1927 
1928 


164,530,170 
173,206,513 
176,298,846 


140 

153 
156 


215,300,000 

227,080,000 
243,702,000 


76.4 
73 9 
72.3 


281,346,591 
280,594,551 
276,789,188 


1.71 
1 62 
1 57 


1929 

1930 
1931 


170,646,036 
161,197.228 
125,429,071 


163 
163 
165 


258,917,000 
270,044,000 
271,850,000 


65 9 
59.7 
46 1 


252,556,133 
232,124,008 
139,226,268 


1 48 
1 .44 
1 11 


1932 

1933 


76,740,945 

63,473,189 


166 
166 


271,308,000 

269,387,000 


28 3 
23 6 


77,508,354 
84,419,341 


1.01 
1.33 


(a) Number of plants active during year from 1905 on; previously, number of exist- 
ing works. 

(b) Ratio of finished portland cement produced to manufacturing capacity. 

(c) Estimated daily capacity; annual not computed. 

(d) 1870-1880. 



REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



THE UNITED STATES— 1870 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE 

(Figures from U. S. Geological Survey and 
U. S. Bureau of Mines) 



Per Capita 




Consump- 


Ship- 


tion U. S. 


ments 


(e) 


(Barrels) 



Stocks on Imports of Exports of 

Hand at End Hydraulic Hydraulic 
of Year Cement Cement 

(Barrels) (Barrels) (f) (Barrels) (h) 



Year 



198,000 (g) 
187,000 
1,940,186 



507,077 (i) 
41,989 (i) 
86,963 (i) 



1870-79 
1880 
1890 



2,997,395 

2,386,683 
939,330 



83,682 
100,400 
373,934 



1895 
1900 
1901 



1,963,023 

2,251,969 

968,409 



340,821 
285,463 

774,940 



1902 
1903 
1904 



75,547,829 
85,012,556 
88,689 



10,385,789 

7,811. 129 

11,220,328 



896,845 
2,273,493 

'.,438 

121 

433,888 

.863 

164,670 

68,503 

85,470 



897,686 
583,299 
900,550 



1905 
1906 
1907 



846,528 
1,056,922 

.957 

,409 
.532 
2,96 I 



1908 
1909 

1910 



1911 
1912 
1913 



77 
K.J 
89 


86,437,956 

86,891,681 


12,77 ; 
11,462,523 

8,360. > .2 


120,906 
42.218 


'197 
2,56 

.,976 


1914 
1915 
1916 


H\ 

64 

77 


90,703,474 

70.915,508 
85,612,899 


10,353,838 

10,451,044 

5,256,900 


305 


• .215 
2,252,446 


1917 
1918 
1919 


K7 

K7 

1 ()(> 


96,311,719 

95,507,1 17 
117,701,216 


8,833, 067 
12,192,567 


122,317 
355.931 


2,985,807 
1,181 


1921 


1 21 
1 29 
1 38 


912,118 

l 16,047,549 

,295,212 


10,8! 

14,151 

18,336,173 


1,767 

2,023.663 

3,667,458 


1,001,688 

678,543 


1924 

1925 


1.44 
1 15 


162,187,090 

171,864,728 

B38,332 


20,740,187 
i7,382 

22,91 


3,244,223 

2,065,730 
2.284,085 


• 

816,726 
824,656 


1926 
1927 


1 11 

1 29 
1 06 


169,868,322 
1 39,059,334 

127,150,534 


23,537,817 
2^,848,000 
2.5.942,000 


>,345 
984,807 
457,238 


855,321 

755,778 
429,653 


1930 

1931 


50 


80,843,187 

64,282,756 


20,351,058 

19,541,491 


462,496 
794 


374,581 
680,301 


1932 
1933 



(e) Based on shipments of domestic portland cement from mills into states. 

(f) Hydraulic cement imported for consumption; bbl. of 376 lb. in 1920 to 1933 
and 380 lb. in earlier years. 

(g) Imports in 1878 and 1879. 

(h) Hydraulic cement exported from the United States. 

(i) Lime and cement of domestic production exported from United States. 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



PORTLAND CEMENT PRICES COMPARED WITH BUILDING 

MATERIAL PRICES AND LIVING COSTS 
Index 1926 = 100. Source: U. S. Department of Labor Bulletin R-73 



■C&st of 3 uifding Ma fe ria Is 




1920 21 22 23 24. 25 26 21 28 29 30 3/ 32 .'933 



PRODUCTION AND PRICE OF CEMENT 
Source: U. S. Bureau of Mines 




X 



1320 2! 22 23 24 25 2G 21 26 29 30 31 32 1933 



REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



780 
70,0 

740 
220 

Xzoo 

5 BO 

* l&O 
« 140 
% "20 

100 
60 
GO 


PRODUCTION AND CAPACITY 

Based on Estimates of U. S. Bureau of Mines 


























1 






























- 






















Est 


imat 


ed C 


apac 


ity- 










































































Proc 


fucf 


'on 
















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, 



















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1 




—1 






1 1 — 






1920 21 22 23 24 25 2G 27 28 29 30 31 32 J 933 





CEMENT SHIPMENTS AND VOLUME OF CONSTRUCTION 
1926 = 100. Sources : Engineering News-Record ; U. S. Bureau of Mines 


no 

100 
90 
80 
10 

no 

so 

40 
30 
10 

10 


















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1970 21 22 23 24 25 2G 21 28 29 30 31 32 1933 





10 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



Ten Years of Accident Prevention Progress in the 
Cement Industry 

(Based on records of the Bureau of Accident Prevention and Insurance 

of the Portland Cement Association, covering accident experience 

in member company plants in the United States and Canada) 



Years 


No. of 

Plants 
Report- 
ing 


Total No. 

of Lost- 

Time 

Accidents 


No. of 

Lost-Time 

Accidents 

per Million 

Man Hrs. 


No. of 
Perma- 
nent 
Dis- 
abilities 


No. of 
Fatal- 
ities 


No. of 
No-Ac- 
cident 
Plants 


56 of 

No-Acc. 

Plants to 

Total 


1924 


110 


3,098 


35.3 


76 


60 


None 


0.0 


1925 


120 


2,541 


27.0 


77 


61 


2 


1.66 


1926 


124 


2,174 


22.0 


64 


45 


2 


1.61 


1927 


134 


1,337 


14 


66 


30 


12 


8.95 


1928 


136 


877 


10.0 


74 


33 


17 


12.5 


1929 


138 


686 


9.5 


55 


37 


28 


20.3 


1930 


128 


420 


6.3 


48 


18 


46 


35.9 


1931 


100 


197 


5.6 


27 


17 


39 


39.0 


1932 


112 


125 


4.5 


16 


5 


57 


50.9 


1933 


116 


120 


4.6 


23 


7 


61 


52.6 






ACCIDENT REDUCTION IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY 
IN RELATION TO PRODUCTION OF CEMENT 


3400 
3200 
^3000 
C 2600 
■5 7600 
«* 7400 
** 22O0 
£ 2000 

* 1600 

* 1600 
.5 1400 
^ / ? 00 

*tooo 

800 
6 00 
400 
200 





















no 

160 
ISO 
140 
130 

m\ 

110 t 
tOO «5 

n\ 

SO £ 

io 5 

60\ 

SO 

40 

30 

20 

10 


3 






































































































Prodo 


c+ion^ 




























V-x 


cciden 


ts 












































































































































































1 


t2m Jt, 26 21 28 29 50 Jt 32 l9i 



REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



1 1 



USE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PER CAPITA, 1933 



Use Per Barrels Rank in % Total Rank in Popula- 
State Capita, Used in Use Per Used Total tion 
Barrels 1933 Capita Shipments Used (1930) 



Alabama 
Arizona 
Arkansas 
California 



.350 
288 

363 
.874 



926,199 
125,512 

673.394 
4,966,717 



38 
44 
36 

4 



1.44 

.20 

1.05 

7.73 



22 

47 

30 

3 



2,646,248 

435,573 

1,854,482 

5,677,251 



Colorado 
Connecticut 
Delaware 
Florida 



415 

458 

1 058 

407 



430,248 
736,736 

252,231 
597,776 



26 

22 

3 

29 



.67 
1.15 

.39 
.93 



34 
26 

39 
32 



1,035,791 

1,606,903 

238,380 

1,468,211 



Georgia 
Idaho . 
Illinois 
Indiana 



250 
.266 
.693 
.613 



728,503 

118,811 

5,295,165 

1,986,509 



46 

45 
7 
9 



1.13 

.18 
8 24 
3 09 



27 

48 

2 

10 



2,908,506 

445,032 

7,630,654 

3,238,503 



Iowa . . 
Kansas 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 



.608 
.503 
.476 
.359 



1,502,613 
946,388 

1,244,560 
756,252 



10 

18 
21 

37 



2.34 
1.47 
1.94 
1.18 



12 
20 
17 
25 



2,470,939 
1,880,999 
2,614,589 

2,101,593 



Maine .... 
Maryland . . 
Massachusetts 
Michigan . . 



.391 

511 
.346 

.509 



312,182 

835,241 
1,474,000 
2,465,262 



30 
16 
40 
17 



.49 
1.30 
2.29 
3.84 



36 

24 

13 

8 



797,423 
1,631,526 
4,249,614 

4,842,325 



Minnesota 
Mississippi 
Missouri 
Montana 



.573 
.341 

.702 
.301 



1,469,078 
686,650 

2,548,680 
162,318 



12 

42 

6 

43 



2.29 

1.07 

3.96 

.25 



14 
29 

7 
44 



2,563,954 

2,009,821 

3,629,367 

537,606 



Nebraska . . . 
Nevada . . . . 
New Hampshire 
New Jersey 



744 

15.761 

.562 

.501 



1,025,869 

1,435,214 

261,686 

2,026,606 



5 

1 

14 

19 



1.60 

2.23 

41 

3.15 



18 
15 
38 

9 



1,377,963 

91,058 

465,293 

4,041,334 



New Mexico . 
New York . 
North Carolina 
North Dakota 



.457 

.570 

.153 

194 



193,681 

7,177,654 
484,405 
132,761 



23 

13 
48 
47 



.30 

11.17 

.75 

.21 



43 

1 

33 

46 



423,317 

12,588,066 

3,170,276 

680,845 



Ohio . . . 

Oklahoma . 
Oregon . . 
Pennsylvania 



.411 
.590 
346 
428 



2,738,270 
1,415,678 

330,294 
4,128,354 



27 
11 
41 
25 



4.26 

2.20 

.51 

6.42 



6 
16 
35 

4 



6,646,697 

2,396,040 

953,786 

9,631,350 



Rhode Island 

South Carolina 
South Dakota 
Tennessee . . 



.410 
124 

.347 
.365 



282,078 
217,155 

240,893 
957,390 



28 
49 

39 
34 



.44 
.34 

.37 
1.49 



37 
42 
41 
19 



687,497 
1,738,765 

692.849 
2,616,556 



Texas . 

Utah . 

Vermont 

Virginia 



.551 

.477 
390 
380 



3,211,166 
242,514 
140,289 

921,463 



15 

20 
31 
32 



5.00 
.38 
.22 

1.43 



5 

40 
45 
23 



5,824,715 
507,847 
359,611 

2,421,851 



Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin . . . . 
Wyoming . . . . 
Washington, D. C. 



.439 
.372 
.624 
.365 
1 936 



687,439 

642,998 

1,836,251 

82,499 

942,601 



24 
33 

8 
35 

2 



1.07 
1.00 
2.86 
.13 
1.47 



28 
31 
11 
49 
21 



1,563,396 

1,728,205 

2,939,006 

225,565 

486,869 



Average 



0.50 



1 2 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



Estimated Distribution of Uses of Portland Cement 
in the United States, 1933 

(Based on studies of construction figures and other data) 

% Barrels 

Concrete roads, streets, alleys, curbs, gutters and 

pavement bases 

Structural concrete in buildings of all types . . 
Rural uses exclusively, including farm structures. 
Concrete products, except products used on farms 
Railways, all uses, including street railways . . . 
Sewerage, drainage, culverts, and specialties. . . 
Sidewalks and private driveways (exclusive of rural) 
Bridges, river and harbor works, dams and water 

power projects, storage tanks and reservoirs . . 

Total 100.0 



32.0 


20,600,000 


27.0 


17,300,000 


12.0 


7,700,000 


3.3 


2,100,000 


8.0 


5,100,000 


6.5 


4,100,000 


3.0 


1,900,000 


8.2 


5,200,000 


100.0 


64,000,000 



Modern Highways Developed Through Research 



IN no field of public works con- 
struction is the taxpayer's dollar 
more carefully spent than for high- 
ways. This is due chiefly to the 
great amount of study and research 
which has been carried on by the 
United States Bureau of Public 
Roads, state highway departments 
and highway engineers, to deter- 
mine proper locations for roads and 
the most economical pavement. 

Research into the serviceability 
of various types of pavement sur- 
faces has led to important refine- 
ments, both in the quality and de- 
sign of roads. Pioneering in this, 
Illinois approached its huge high- 
way program by making exhaustive 
tests to discover the most economi- 
cal type of pavement. 

For this purpose the Bates Ex- 
perimental Road was constructed 
near Springfield, 111., in 1921. In 
the first tests, a fleet of army trucks 
with loads of one to ten tons made 
23,200 round trips over a series of 



63 sections of all types and designs 
of pavements. Only 13 stood up; 
ten were all -concrete pavements; of 
the other three, one had brick and 
two had asphalt surfaces, all on 
concrete bases six or more inches 
thick. After this demonstration of 
superiority, five new concrete sec- 
tions were built; given more severe 
tests, emerged successfully. This is 
one of the outstanding highway 
investigations. 

Two important design principles 
were established: first, that a road 
is no stronger than its base; second, 
that for the most economical 
design of rigid pavements, the 
center thickness should be two- 
thirds of the edge thickness. 

Results of these tests and studies 
show that the only sound basis for 
highway design is a detailed knowl- 
edge of the character and volume 
of traffic to be served; and that 
the economical pavement for any 
traffic can be accurately designed. 









REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



13 



Square Yards of Concrete Pavement Awarded in U. S. 



Year 


Roads 


Streets 


Alleys 


Total 


Total Builtf 


*1909 


66,687 


770,022 


199,316 


1,036,025 





1910 


151,148 


682,637 


107,874 


941,659 





1911 


291,077 


1,011,440 


136,674 


1,439,191 


, 


1912 


1,869,486 


3,326,029 


185,703 


5,381,218 





1913 


3,339,185 


3,946,219 


308,365 


7,593,769 





1914 


10,608,421 


4,830,604 


300,138 


15,739,163 





1915 


12,050,909 


5,933,879 


612,921 


18,597,709 





1916 


15,906,801 


7,395,975 


880,179 


24,182,955 


— 


1917 


15,333,087 


5,238,062 


1,200,030 


21,771,179 


— 


1918 


12,990,519 


3,295,817 


585,948 


16,872,284 


— 


1919 


41,335,342 


11,086,419 


1,038,173 


53,459,934 


— 


1920 


29,326,689 


8,814,782 


907,164 


39,048,635 


— 


1921 


43,862,503 


10,695,548 


1,606,085 


56,164,136 


— 


1922 


58,301,413 


18,607,792 


2,176,500 


79,085,705 


— 


1923 


50,893,999 


24,385,497 


2,658,276 


77,937,772 


79,569,387 


1924 


58,105,921 


29,939,429 


4,194,811 


92,240,161 


99,040,427 


1925 


63,895,104 


35,664,427 


4,509,810 


104,069,341 


101,428,272 


1926 


64,978,458 


43,968,335 


4,952,334 


113,899,127 


105,982,730 


1927 


77,232,917 


47,885,717 


5,144,799 


130,263,433 


128,758,463 


1928 


93,531,487 


50,597,969 


3,948,452 


148,077,908 


145,837,547 


1929 


92,816,794 


43,543,570 


3,660,387 


140,020,751 


136,331,499 


1930 


108,008,062 


35,212,793 


2,600,800 


145,821,655 


150,588,913 


1931 


111,989,850 


21,974,230 


952,772 


134,916,852 


141,374,626 


1932 


87,165,260 


10,046,915 


350,775 


97,562,950 


90,806,306 


1933 


40,097,069 


8,066,587 


229,350 


48,393,006 


57,984,119 


Totals 


1,094,148,188 


436,920,694 


43,447,636 


1,574,516,518 





* Includes all years previous to 1910, 

fFigures for concrete yardage actually built not available prior to 1923. 





io 


. 


30 


-V >." 


- 


10 50 90 100 I/O 120 ISO 140 ISO 














Po»ds Strtets Alleys 


I970M 








II 












f : \ ■ 








■HI 












/9?:M 












■| SQUARE YARDS OF CONCRETE 




■'9 23M 












YFAD IM TUC IIMITCn 




I924M 












■1 STATES 


















1 932M 




























1933W 








IH 















w 


20 


30 


40 50 

Mm; 


9ns 


70 60 30 100 HO 120 130 140 ISO 
of Squire Yards 



1 4 



CEMENT AND CONCRET 



ROADS, STREETS AND ALLEY! OF 



State 







Miles of Federal 






Aid Roads 


Total 


Mileage 


Completed and 


Mileage 


State 


Final Payment 


Ml Roads 


System 


Made as 




1933 


of June 30, 
1933 



Total 
Mileage* 

of Concrete 
Roads to 

Jan. 1, 1934 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 



74,011. 
23,238. 

74,178. 



6,500. 
2,895. 
8,900 . 



2,344.3. 
1,270.4. 
1,932.8. 



953 

443. 

1,018 



California 
Colorado , . 
Connecticut . 



77,085. 
72,338. 
12,031. 



14,063. 
9,236 
2,483. 



2,500.1. 

1,863.7. 
296.8 



5,508 

476. 
809 



Delaware . 

Florida . . 
Georgia 



3,834. 

29,761 . 

113,196. 



1,141 
10,902 

8,286 



381.1. 

661.1. 

3,238.8. 



724. 

707. 

1,642. 



Idaho . 
Illinois . 
Indiana 



40,610. 
97,157. 
77,627. 



4,802. 
13,811 
8,378 



1,592.4. 
3,110.9. 

2,109.4. 



64. 
11,825. 

5,241. 



Iowa . 
Kansas . . 
Kentucky 



103,058. 

133,154. 

62,187. 



7,842. 
9,310 
7,322 



3,540.0. 
4,052.9. 
1,933.6. 



4,501 
1,199 
1,013 



Louisiana . 
Maine . . 
Maryland 



38,041 . 

20,287 

14,907. 



17,631 
2,368 
3,772. 



1,619.6 
823.0. 
872.7. 



1,865 

280 

2,110 



Massachusetts 

Michigan . . . 
Minnesota . . 



18,770 
86,054. 
116,075 



1,809 

8,843 . 
11.114 



875.9. 
2,339.2. 
4,309.6 



580. 
6,759 
2,676 



Mississippi 
Missouri . 
Montana . 



60,367. 

106,047. 

69,398. 



6,133 

16,260 

5,013 



1,863.8 
3,233.2. 

2,973.2 



654. 

4,007. 

36. 



Nebraska. . . 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 



94,739. 
23,640. 

13.014 



7,825. 
4,007. 

3,083 



4,259.7. 
,1,352.1, 

448.0. 



785 

47. 

256 



New Jersey . 
New Mexico 
New York . 



19,803. 
33,145. 
84,998 



3,420 
10,373. 
13,947. 



North Carolina 
North Dakota . 
Ohio . , 



637.9 
2,300.9. 

3,516.6 



1,959 
107. 

8,620 



55,125. 
106,842 

85,326. 



10,368 

7,591 

11,839 



2,358.8 
5,432.1. 
3,057.9. 



Oklahoma 

Oregon . . . 
Pennsylvania 



2,810. 

27. 

4,352. 



107,921. 

44,007 

110,326 



7,162 

4,737. 
34,020 



2,502.2. 
1,630.5. 
3,276.8 



Rhode Island . 
South Carolina 
South Dakota . 



2,031. 

370. 

6,473. 



3,063 
64,021 

119,888 



Tennessee 
Texas . . 
Utah. . . 



69,590. 

219,196 

23,711 



1,086 

5,954. 
6,000 
7,226 
19,175 
4,624. 



271.7. 
1,962.5. 

4,305.3 



229. 
1,956 

214. 



Vermont . . 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



1,723.5. 
8,113.8. 
1,286.3. 



1,443. 

4,362. 

330 



14,040 
46,613 
45.182 



1,028 
8,971 
3,553 



393.8 
1,994.3. 

1,330.7. 



283. 
1,186 
1,917. 



34,869 
82,979. 
39,805 



4,372. 

10,104. 

3,389 



925.6. 
2,760.1. 
2,179.8 



1,331. 

4,945, 

13 



TOTALS 3,065,254 382,668 107,759.4. 

'Mileage based on square yards of completed pavement 18 feet wide. 



101,136. 






I EFERENC E BOOK . 1934 



DF THE UNITED STATES 



1 5 



Motor 


Motor 


Vehicle 


Vehicles 


Registra- 


per Mile 


tion 


of Concrete 


1933 


Road 



Concrete 
Streets 

Equivalent 
Mileage 

30 Ft. Wide 
Total to 

Jan. 1, 1934 



Concrete 

Alleys 

Equivalent 

Mileage 
18 Ft. Wide 

Total to 
Jan. 1. 1934 



State 



206,361 

89,496 

188,242. 



217 
202 
185. 



414. 

53. 

374. 



69. 
7. 
6 



Alabama 
. Arizona 
Arkansas 



1,958,807 

266,491 
31 4,751 

51,099 
279,265 
330,147 

96,255 

1,463,050 

770,071 



356 

560 
389 



3,052. 
105. 
155. 



175 

221 

3 



.California 
. Colorado 
.Connecticut 



71 
395 
201 



18 
349 



> r 



85. 
34 



. Delaware 
.Florida 
. Georgia 



.1,504 
. 124 

147 



27. 

2,885 

700. 



2 
976 
165 



. Idaho 
Illinois 
. Indiana 



632,292 

517,987 
294,547 



1 (0 

432 

2<;i 



1,048 
371 
208 



132 
69 
65 



Iowa 
. Kansas 

I icky 



232,688 
168,173 
3 13,274 
789,788 
1,077,209 
679,243 



125. 
600 
148 



309 

60 

230 



43 
5 

171. 



Louisiana 
. Maine 

Maryland 



.1,361 

. 159 

264 



340 
970 
457. 



2 

542. 
117. 



Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



164,688 


. . 252. . . 


. . 149. . . 


22. . . 


Mississippi 


698,362 


174 


940 


168 


Missouri 


110,245 


. .3.' 


54. . . 


10 . 


. . . Montana 



390,651 

28,324 

107,631 



498 
708 
420 



190 
18 



48 
5 

5 



. Nebraska 
. Nevada 

Hampshire 



845,734 

76,643 

2,240,757 



432 
716 
260 



1,296 



16. 

4 

14 



New Jersey 
. New Mexico 
.New York 



382,308. . . 


. . 136. . . 


285 . . 


18. . . 


North Carolina 


153,889 


5,699 


59 


6 


North Dakota 


1,554,314 


. . 357. . . 


. . 


. . 133 . . 


.Ohio 


451.712 . . 


. . 222 . 


621. . . 


34. . . 


O '< ! i : i : i 


239,410 


.647 


391 


15 


Oregon 


19. . . 


253 


1,019 


114. . . 


. . .Pennsylv « 



136,261 
162,735 
169,249 



595 

83 

791 



12 

142 
140 



1 
6 



.Rhode Island 
South Carolina 
South Dakota 



312,180 

1.201,762 

100,362 


. 216 . . 

276 
.304 


298 

660 
103. . . 


49 . 

4. . . 


Tennessee 
. Texas 
. .Utah 


. . 73,576 

344,704 
427,406 


. . 260 . . 
291 
223 


86 . . 
1S9 
879 


_> 


Vermont 
Virginia 
Washington 


226,985. 

670,797 

52,560 


. . 171. . . 

136 . . 

. 4,043 . . . 


. . 176. . . 

1.240 

34. . . 


18 . 
29^ 
2. . . 


. . .West Virginia 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 



.23,677,500 234 (Av.) 



4,040 



TOTALS 






1 6 



CEM ENT AND CONCRETE 



FEDERAL AID FOR HIGHWAYS 



FEDERAL Aid for roads has not 
only provided the incentive for 
state highway construction but it 
has also been of immense value in 
keeping road building activities 
under efficient state control. It has 
been responsible for a national 
coordinated highway system un- 
equalled in any other country. Its 
extensive benefits have far exceeded 
in value the funds expended. 

The Federal Aid Road Act, 
approved July 11, 1916, provided 
$75,000,000 to be made available 
in five annual installments begin- 
ning with the fiscal year 1917. 
In February, 1919, provision was 
made for expenditure of an addi- 
tional $200,000,000, both sums to 
be used up by 1922. 

This and subsequent legislation 
have made available the following 
sums for the fiscal years shown. 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 



$ 5,000,000 
10,000,000 
65,000,000 
95,000,000 

100,000,000 
75,000,000 
50,000,000 
65,000,000 
75,000,000 
75,000,000 
75,000,000 



1928 
1929 

1 1930 
1931 

2 1932 
3 1933 
4 1934 
4 1935 

1936 
1937 



$75,000,000 

75,000,000 

75,000,000 

125,000,000 

125,000,000 

109,159,256 





125,000,000 

125,000,000 



1 Due to inability of many states 
to match Federal Aid and thereby 
secure benefits of funds authorized, 
a loan of $80,000,000 was made and 
allotted to the various states. This 
amount is in addition to regular 
Federal Aid shown in above table. 
Provision was made for repayment 
in five annual installments by de- 
ductions from regular Federal Aid 
commencing with fiscal year 1933. 

2 In addition to the regular Fed- 



eral Aid shown, there was made 
available, by the Emergency Relief 
and Construction Act of July 21, 
1932, the sum of $120,000,000 as a 
temporary advance to states to be 
repaid by deductions from future 
authorizations for regular Federal 
Aid. Provision was made for repay- 
ment over a period of 10 years com- 
mencing with the fiscal year 1938. 

3 From regular Federal Aid for 
the fiscal year 1933 there was de- 
ducted the first installment for re- 
payment of the $80,000,000 loan. 

4 The fiscal year 1933 ended with 
no definite provision made for the 
continuance of Federal Aid road 
construction. In place of the regu- 
lar authorization, provision was 
made in the National Industrial 
Recovery Act, June 16, 1933, for 
highway construction as a means 
of unemployment relief during the 
fiscal year 1934. By this act there 
was made available $400,000,000 to 
be expended on Federal Aid roads 
and extensions into and through 
municipalities and also on second- 
ary and feeder roads in all states. 

On June 18, 1934, an act was 
approved (H R 8781) known as the 
Hayden-Cartwright Bill. This made 
immediately available $200,000,000 
and further provided for continua- 
tion of regular Federal Aid in the 
fiscal years 1936 and 1937 by auth- 
orizing appropriation of $125,000,- 
000 in each of the two years. Section 
14 of this act cancels repayments 
of previous loans. The full amount 
of the sums authorized will, there- 
fore, be made available to the states 
without deduction. 






REFERENCE BOOK * 1934 1_7 

Mileage of Improved Federal Aid Roads in U. S., by 
Types of Construction, as of June 30, 1933 

(Figures from U. S. Bureau of Public Roads) 

Per Cent 

Miles of Total 

Mileage 

Concrete 37,565 34 9 

Bituminous Concrete 3,972 3.7 

Bituminous Macadam 4,627 4.3 

Low Cost Bituminous Mix 5,650 5.2 

Macadam (Treated) 1,123 1.1 

Macadam (Untreated) 2,026 1.9 

Gravel (Treated) 1,113 10 

Gravel (Untreated) 31,117 28.8 

Sand-Clay (Treated) 80 0.1 

Sand-Clay (Untreated) 7,111 6.6 

Graded and Drained 11,777 10.9 

Miscellaneous (Block Types, etc.) 1,056 1.0 

Bridges and Approaches . 542 . 5 

Total 107,759 100.0 



CONCRETE ROADS IN UNITED STATES— JANUARY 1, 1934 




^M OVER 2500 MILES 
E^2 BETWEEN 250061000 MI 
E3I BETWEEN 1000 £-500 MILES 
L^J BETWEEN 500 & 200 MILES 
E2 BETWEEN 700 t- 100 MILES 
1 I LESS THAN 100 MILES 



1 8 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



Concrete Street Pavements Awarded in the 95 Cities 
of the United States With Population Over 100,000 

December 31, 1933 
FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION OVER 1,000,000 



Citi 



Chicago 8,113,074 

Detroit . 1.527.298 

Los Angeles 22,824,611 

New York 1.409,486 

Philadelphia 1,008,831 

Total 34,883,300 



Square Yards of Concrete Street Pavement 
Awarded Awarded Total to Equivalent 

Prior to During Dec. 31, Miles 30-Ft. 

1933 1933 1933 Pavement 



415,278 

235,848 
21,380 
52,700 

725,206 



8,528,352 
1,527,298 
23,060.459 
1,430,866 
1,061,531 

35.608,506 



484.5 

86.8 

1,310.3 

81.3 

60.3 

2,023.2 



EIGHT CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 500,000 AND 1,000,000 



Baltimore . 
Boston . 
Buffalo . . 
Cleveland 
Milwaukee 
Pittsburgh 
San Francisco 
St. Louis . 

Total 



2.745,330 

309,530 

5^3.559 

202,865 

5,830 

666.902 

1.034.413 

1,575,929 

10,644,358 



5.735 
3,115 



9.930 
64,565 
36.916 

147,536 



2,751,065 
312,645 
353,559 
202,865 

3.765,760 
731,467 

1,071,329 

1,603,204 

10,791,894 



156.3 
17.8 
20.1 
11.5 

214.0 
41.6 
60.8 
91.1 

613.2 



TWENTY-FIVE CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 250,000 AND 500,000 



Akron 

Atlanta 

Birmingham 

Cincinnati 

Columbus 

Dallas 

Denver 

Houston 

Indianapolis 

Jersey Ci1 

Kansas C 

Louisville . 

Memphis 

Minneapolis 

Newark 

New Orleans 

Oakland 

Portland, Ore. 

Providence 

Rochester 

St. Paul . 

San Antonio 

Seattle 

Toledo . 

Washington 

Total 



230,972 
3.693,381 
1,713 

2,602.643 

-.191 

916,803 

174,109 

1.396,361 

105,228 

4,389.513 

117.842 

453,242 

418,604 

237,418 

788.731 

511,865 

3.335,566 

31,595 

398,356 

989.459 

453 

8,431,092 

1,102,481 

3.177,388 

36,128,870 



3.750 

1.275 

23.576 

17.241 
19,180 

98,634 

62.592 

11,085 
5,005 

115,660 

87,300 

3,733 

12,702 

296,935 



758,668 



230,972 

3,697,131 

1,718,778 

2,626,219 

455.191 

934,044 

193,289 

1,494,995 

105,228 

4,452,105 

117,842 

464,327 

423,609 

237,418 

904,391 

511,865 

3,422,866 

31,595 

398,356 

993,192 

453,527 

8,443,794 

1,102,481 

3.474,323 

36,887,538 



13.1 
210.1 

97.6 
149.2 
25.9 
53.1 
11.0 

84.9 

6.0 

253.0 

6.7 

26.4 

24.1 

13.5 

51.4 

29.1 

194.5 

1.8 

22.6 

56.4 

25.8 

479.8 

62.6 

197.4 

2,096.0 



, 



REFERENCE BOOK 



1934 



1 9 



FIFTY-SEVEN CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 100,000 AND 250,000 



Albany . . 

Allentown 

Bridgeport 

Cambridge 

Camden 

Canton 

Chattanooga 

Dayton 

Des Moines 

Duiuth . . 

Elizabeth . 

El Paso 

Erie . . . 

Evansville 

Fall River 

Flint . . . 

Ft. Wayne 

Ft. Worth 

Gary . . . 

Grand Rapid: 

Hartford 

Jacksonville 

Kansas City, Kan 

Knoxville . 

Long Beach 

Lowell . . 

Lynn . . . 

Miami . . 

Nashville . 

New Bedford 

New Haven 

Norfolk 

Oklahoma City 

Omaha . 

Paterson 

Peoria 

Reading 

Richmond 

Salt Lake City 

San Diego 

Scranton 

Somerville, Mass. 

South Bend 

Spokane 

Springfield, Mass 

Syracuse . 

Tacoma 

Tampa . . 

Trenton 

Tulsa . . 

Utica . . 

Waterbury 

Wichita 

Wilmington, Del. 

Worcester 

Yonkers 

Youngstown 



Total 

Totals, 95 cities 



Prior to 


During 


Total Dec. 


Equiv. Miles 


1933 


1933 


31, 1933 


30-Ft. Pvmt. 


793,244 


2,840 


796,084 


45.2 


358,927 


4,373 


363,300 


20.6 


4,900 




4,900 


0.3 


48,716 




48,716 


2.8 


305,729 




305,729 


17.4 


10,000 




10,000 


0.6 


308,625 


6,000 


314,625 


17.9 


729,607 


14,931 


744,538 


42.3 


998,032 


43,049 


1,041,081 


59.1 


1,328,459 


144,305 


1,472,764 


83.7 


382,941 




382,941 


21.7 


44,765 




44,765 


2.5 


86,993 


8,748 


95,741 


5.4 


24,380 




24,380 


1.4 


100,834 




100,834 


5.7 


111,881 




111,881 


6.3 


190,396 


715 


191,111 


10.9 


163,522 




163,522 


9.3 


650,042 




650,042 


36.9 


670,760 




670,760 


38.1 


132,022 




132,022 


7.5 


333,130 


99,393 


432,523 


24.6 


1,128,851 


12,200 


1,141,051 


64.8 


301,000 


33,487 


334,487 


19.0 


2,104,492 


198 


2,104,690 


119.6 


128,676 




128,676 


7.3 


82,225 




82,225 


4.7 


300,194 


57,483 


357,677 


20.3 


3,000 


1,500 


4,500 


0.3 


15,372 




15,372 


0.9 


347,445 




347,445 


19.7 


291,000 


4,000 


295,000 


16.8 


1,303,464 


13,114 


1,316,578 


74.8 


229,474 




229,474 


13.0 


204,705 


2,500 


207,205 


11.8 


883,656 


20,784 


904,440 


51.4 


136,088 


10,809 


146,897 


8.3 


312,638 


6,100 


318,738 


18.1 


513,586 




513,586 


29.2 


3,614,151 


9,134 


3,623,285 


206.0 


23,140 


900 


24,040 


1.4 


40,673 




40,673 


2.3 


407,929 




407,929 


23.2 


580,635 


19,124 


599,759 


34.1 


128,330 


2,744 


131,074 


7.4 


196,364 


2,900 


199,264 


11.3 


1,190,952 


17,306 


1,208,258 


68.6 


34,219 


17,166 


51,385 


2.9 


689,672 


7,873 


697,545 


39.6 


1,501,729 


21,562 


1,523,291 


86.5 


203,198 




203,198 


11.5 


5,890 


350 


6,240 


0.4 


1,407,543 


7,370 


1,414,913 


80.4 


121,406 


3,417 


124,823 


7.1 


210,870 


7,206 


218,076 


12.4 


297,027 




297,027 


16.9 


811,960 




811,960 
28,133,040 


46.1 


27,529,459 


603,581 


1,598.3 


109,185,987 


2,234,991 


111,420,978 


6,330.7 



20 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



EARLY CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 



Scotland 

186 5 Inverness — Road to Freight 

Station. 
1866 Edinburgh — Approach to George 

IV Bridge. 
1872 Edinburgh — Liven Terrace. 
1872 Edinburgh — Gillespie Crescent. 
1872 Edinburgh — Glengyle Terrace. 
In the 70's — Edinburgh Livingstone 

Place. 
In the 70's — Edinburgh Argyle Park 

Terrace. 
The oldest concrete pavements known 
to be in service are on Liven Terrace, 
Glengyle Terrace and Gillespie Crescent, 
Edinburgh, Scotland, and were built in 
1872. They are more than 62 years old and 
still carry traffic. 



France 

1876 Grenoble 

in use. 



-36 streets, many still 



United States 



1892 Bellefontaine, Ohio— West side of 
Main Street, a strip 10 feet wide, 220 
feet long. 

1893-4 Bellefontaine, Ohio — Remainder 
of Main Street, also Columbus, Opera 
and Court Streets were paved, being 
the four sides of the Public Square. 

1894 Watertown, N. Y.— Lane leading 
to station. 

1896 Richmond, Ind.— Alley. 

1896-1906 Richmond, Ind.— Streets and 
alleys. 

1899 Detroit, Mich.— Orchestra Place 
(Woodward Avenue to John R. St.) 

1904 Grand Rapids, Mich. — Quigley 
Blvd. 



1904 LeMars, Iowa — Street. 

1904 Mobile, Ala.— St. Francis Street. 

1905 Manchester, N. H.— Alley. 

1907 Chicago, Illinois— 21st, 22nd St. 

and 21st Place. 
1907 New Haven, Conn.— East Chapel 

Street. 

1907 Salt Lake City, Utah— "B" Street 
(S. Temple to N. Temple Street.) 

1908 Chicago, Illinois — Ohio Street. 
1908 Chicago, Illinois — Center and 

Emerald Avenue. 
1908 Billings, Mont.— Yellowstone 

Avenue, Division Street. 
1908 Nazareth, Pa. 

1908 New Brunswick, N. J. 

1909 Los Angeles Co., California. 

1909 Waukegan, Illinois — Clayton St. 

1910 Wayne Co., Mich.— Wayne Road 
South. 

At the beginning of 1909 the United 
States had the following quantities of con- 
crete pavement: 

Roads 34,061 square yards. 

Streets 444,864 square yards. 

Alleys 112,491 square yards. 



Total 591,416 square yards. 

1892 saw the first concrete pavement 
constructed in the United States in Belle- 
fontaine, Ohio. This was a narrow strip 
along the hitching rack on one side of the 
Court House Square. The following year 
the rest of the street was paved as well as 
the three other streets around the Court 
House. All of this pavement is giving 
perfect service today, although more than 
42 years old. 



Steep Grades Are Concrete Paved in Many States 







Street or Grade — 






Street or Grade — 


State 


Location 


Road Per Cent 


State 


Location 


Road Per Cent 


Ala. 


Birmingham 


Eula Street 


19 


Mo. 


Kansas City 


22nd Street 


18 


Ark. 


Fayetteville 


School Street 


10-12 


N. J. 


Paterson 


Jefferson St. 


21 


Calif, 


Los Angeles 


Ewing Street 


25-32 


N. M. 


Gallup 


Green Street 


20 


Colo. 


Boulder 


Mapleton Ave. 


15 


N. Y. 


Ossining 


Ellis Place 


21 


Conn. 


Near E, Berlin 


East Berlin Rd. 


10 


N C. 


Asheville 


Maxwell, Blanton 




Ga. 

111. 


Macon 
Savanna 


New Street 
Walnut Street 


15 
23 






Eagle and Vic- 
toria Streets 


7-12 


Iowa 


Council Bluffs 


Fifteenth Ave. 


17 


Ohio 


Cambridge 


South 7th St. 


19 


Ky. 


Lexington 


S. Upper Street 


10.5 


Perm. 


Altoona 


Seventeenth St. 


27 


Md. 


Baltimore 


Fairmount Rd. 


16 


Texas 


El Paso 


Laurel Street 


17 


Mich. 


Milford 


G.M.C. Proving 




Va. 


Appalachia 


Virginia Ave. 


24 






Ground 


11.2 


Wash. 


Seattle 


36th Ave. N. 


26.6 


Minn. 


Duluth 


22nd Ave. W. 


17.43 


W. Va. 


Bluefield 


Mercer Street 


28.2 


Miss. 


Vicksburg 


China Street 


18.5 


Wis. 


Milwaukee 


Nineteenth St. 


15.3 






REFERENCE BOOK • 1934 



2 1 



Some Airports With Concrete Runways and Aprons 






Concrete 


Concrete Aprons, 


Location 


Field 


Runways 


Taxiways and Drive- 






Sq. Yd. 


ways — Sq. Yd. 


Riverside, Calif. 


March (USA) . . . 




48,700 


San Diego, Calif. . . 


No. Island (USN) 




46,800 


E. St. Louis, 111. . 


Curtiss .... 


53,000 


22,000 


Indianapolis, Ind. . 


Mars Hill ... 


55,100 


20,000 


Kansas City, Kan. 


Fairfax . 




74,800 


Shreveport, La. . . 


Barksdale (USA) 


173,200* 




Detroit, Mich. . . 


Municipal ... 


25,000 


20,400 


Dearborn, Mich. 


Ford 


48,000 


18,100 


Wayne Co., Mich. 


County 


110,900 


83,300 


Mt. Clemens, Mich. 


Selfridge (USA) . . 


28,800 


26,000 


St. Paul, Minn. . . 


Municipal .... 


4,300 


18,500 


Kansas City, Mo. . 


Municipal ... 




20,000 


St. Louis, Mo. . . 


Municipal .... 


5,000 


38,200 


Buffalo, N. Y. . . 


Municipal ... 




25,800 


New York, N. Y. 


Floyd Bennett . . 


78,700 


69,600 


New York, N. Y. . 


Roosevelt . . 




54,500 


New York, N. Y. . 


Mitchell (USA) . 


30,000 


32,000 


Valley Stream, N. Y 


Curtiss . . 




24,000 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Municipal 


86,000 


12,600 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Municipal 




27,800 


Warwick, R. I. . . 


Hillsgrove 


174,000* 




Milwaukee, Wis. . 


County 




281,000 



*Includes Aprons. 




22 



CEMENT AND C ONCRETE 



ROAD MAINTENANCE COSTS 



PROGRESSIVE states and 
counties now keep itemized 
road upkeep cost figures that they 
may know how each dollar is allo- 
cated for surface repair, weed cut- 
ting, snow removal, etc. This rec- 
ord, together with traffic counts, 
enables the states to determine the 
cost of road upkeep per vehicle 
for each type of surface. 



Records of this type become 
more valuable to these states each 
year in determining the economy 
of future construction. 

The following tabulations show 
the importance of these records. 
Concrete pavements not only carry 
more traffic than other types of 
surfaces but are the most economi- 
cal over a period of years. 



Illinois Maintenance Costs Per Mile Per Year For 
Various Types of Road -Wearing Surfaces 

(Compiled from Reports of the Illinois Division of Highways) 



Figures indicate maintenance 
costs per mile per year for wearing 
surface only on the State Mainten- 



ance System. Concrete constituted 
10,617.3 miles of the 11,234.1 miles 
of improved roads. 



Year 



1921 & 1922 
1923 
1924 



Con- 
crete 



Brick 



Bitumin- 
ous 
Con- 
crete 



Bitumin- 
ous 
Ma- 
cadam* 



Water- 
bound 

Ma- 
cadam* 



% 68.24 

73.47 

122.12 



$ 62.36 
88.86 

151.97 



(1) 
$109.47 

437.89 



$129.36 
143.97 
162.07 



$987.52 
302.37 
405.06 



Gravel* 



$152.02 
149 39 
173.92 



1925 
1926 
1927 


72.20 
65.15 
72.79 


123.41 
163.34 

168.27 


246.34 
570.98 

511.44 


209.39 
254.29 

201.63 


146.78 
127.63 

1,039.05 


132 84 
242.74 
271.06 


1928 
1929 
1930 


72.29 

69.66 

108.40 


184.56 
226.92 
205 52 


207.84 
900.88 

173.42 


430.99 
137.90 

562.48 


405.42 
373.97 
356.95 


313.35 

271.26 
150.85 


1931 

1932 
1933 


90.02 
82.38 
59.37 


322.81 
224.76 
130.03 


184.56 

107.25 
38.92 


63.41 
158.96 
258.37 


310.17 
370 95 
150.63 


151.34 

167.64 

69.52 


13-yr. av. 


$ 79 30 


$180.12 


(2) 
$352.53 


$221.66 


$381 . 78 


$185 10 



Note: The costs per mile shown under bituminous macadam, waterbound macadam 
and gravel do not represent a fair average cost for maintenance and upkeep of such 
types due to the fact that they are located on State Aid roads where the traffic is light 
and only a sufficient amount of maintenance is expended to keep them in passable con- 
dition. —(Statement from Annual Reports.) 

(1) None on state system in 1921 and 1922. 

(2) 11 -year average. 



REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



2 3 



AVERAGE SURFACi 
1921-193 

CONCRETE 
BRICK 


E MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR 13 YEARS 
-Reported by Illinois Division of Highways 

1 




$180.12 










MA' ADAM 
• 1 i f Ml i - 

















AVERAGE SURFACE MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR 



, mix r 
L 






. 



9 



i — 
' [ 



I 



1 



AVERAGE SURFACE MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR It Yf 

I 



BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT [^ 
)AM F 



MAVEL 



OILED ' 






L_ 



] 



Zh 



24 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



AVERAGE SURFACE MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR 9 YEARS 
1925-1933 inclusive— Reported by Ohio Dept. of Highways and Public Works 

I $145.44 



CONCRETE 
ROCK ASPHALT 
BRICK-FLEXIBLE BASE [ 



: : 



BITUMINOUS MACADAM [. 
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE 
MACADAM 

SURFACE TREATED OR 

OILED MACADAM 
*4-year average 



$351.21 
$364.72 
$369.05 







J $371.11 
















$558. 





















$631 ,71 * 



1 



AVERAGE SURFACE MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR 3 YEARS 
Sept. 1, 1929-Aug. 31, 1 932-Reported by Texas State Highway Department 



CONCRETE 

ASPHALTIC CONCRETE- 
FLEXIBLE BASE 

ROCK ASPHALT 

BITUMINOUS- 
SURFACE TREATED 

OIL MIX 

GRAVEL 

SAND CLAY 
CALICHE. ETC 

^2-year average 



$51.51 
$76.69 



$222.09 
J $238.46 

$289.98 • 

"] * 333 62 

H $406.15 



AVERAGE SURFACE MAINTENANCE COSTS PER MILE FOR 5 YEARS 
1929-1933 inclusive-Reported by New Jersey State Highway Department 

CONCRETE 



$159.94 



GRAVEL 

BITUMINOUS MACADAM 

MACAOAM 



$1,458.91 



i 1 



$2,473.71 



REFERENCE BOOK 



1934 



25 



MILES OF ROAD SURFACE MAINTAINED FOR ONE YEAR 
WITH $10,000"' 



\Concrete 



34. Q mi les 



Brick-Concrete base 



45.4 mites 



Rock Asphalt 



40. 9 miles 



Bituminous Concrete 



35. 5 miles 



6 rave I 



31. 7 mi I es 



Bituminous Road Mixes 



31. miles 



Brick - Flexible Base 



29.0 miles 



Bituminous Treated Surfaces C2) 



26.2 miles 



Bituminous Macadam 



76.1 miles 



Bituminous P lan I Mixes 
22.8 miles \ 



Macadam 



114 mi les] 



CO Based on average upkeep cost 
of various surfaces for an average 
of more than 7 years Data assembled 
from all 1 8 states releasing detail 
surface maintenance costs. 
(?) Does not include all costs of re- 
treatmenf and other periodic 
maintenance charges. 



n_i 



10 70 30 40 50 GO 

Miles 



10 80 90 100 



The above chart includes road 
surface maintenance costs of those 
18 states that release such figures. 

Records cover periods ranging 
from 3 to 14 years for the various 
states. Bituminous surfaces noted 
have flexible bases. 

Records show that concrete sur- 



faces have the lowest maintenance 
cost, while carrying the heaviest 
travel, averaging over one thousand 
cars per day. Should light traffic 
surfaces carry the same traffic as 
concrete, even for a short period, 
surface maintenance costs of these 
types would be increased materially. 



26 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



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REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



27 



260 
250 
240 
230 
220 



I — i m r~n i r^i i 

COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE COSTS 
PER MILE OF GRAVEL AND CON- 
CRETE ROADS OVER A TWENTY-YEAR 
PERIOD* 

(Figures taken from the Proceedings of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, November 
1928, "Economic Comparison of Road Sur- 
faces — Wisconsin," by H. J. Kuelling, then 
State Highway Engineer of Wisconsin.) 

Estimated traffic — 500 vehicles per day during 
the first year, increasing to 1,500 vehicles per 
day during the twentieth year. 

♦Initial, reconstruction, maintenance, tire 
and gasoline costs included; no allowance has 
been made for interest on savings effected 
by the concrete road — a figure which would 
add considerably, at 5J4 percent, to the .^ 
total money saved. Nor has credit been * 
computed for the greater salvage -* 
value of the concrete — $15,000 as * 



END OF 
20 YEAR 
PERIOD 




ANALYSIS OF TOTAL COSTS AT END OF 20 YEARS 



GRAVEL 
COST 

CONCRETE TOTAL 
COST $144,694 I 



S?5^ 1 «** ' ■ ■< 



y ;::;r:i 



INITIAL 

AND RECONSTRUCTION 

COST 



MAINTENANCE 
COST 



TIRE 
COST 



GASOLINE 
COST 



2 8 CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

RELATIVE COST OF OPERATING AN ' 'AVERAGE" 
AUTOMOBILE ON VARIOUS CLASSES OF ROADS 

(From Bulletin 91, Engineering Experiment Station, Iowa State 
College, Compiled by T. R. Agg and B. S. Carter) 



Item of Cost 



Approximate relative cost of 
operation in cents per mile 
High Type Intermediate Low Type 
Roads Type Roads Roads 



Gasoline 1.09 

Oil 0.22 

Tires and tubes 0.29 

Maintenance 1.43 

Depreciation 1.26 

License 0.14 

Garage at $4 per month 0.44 

Interest at 6 per cent 0.36 

Insurance 0.21 

Total cost 5.44 

Relative cost 1.00 



1.31 


1.61 


0.22 


0.22 


0.64 


0.84 


1.72 


2.11 


1.39 


1.57 


0.14 


0.14 


0.44 


0.44 


0.36 


0.36 


0.21 


0.21 


6.43 


7.50 


1.18 


1.38 



Concrete and Ton -Mile Vehicle Cost 

(Data from Iowa State College Engineering Experiment Station) 

Type and Speed of Vehicle 

Solid tire Pneu.tire Autos Motor 

Trucks Trucks 25 to 35 Buses 

10M.P.H. 15M.P.H. M.P.H. 25M.P.H. 

Cents per Cents per Cents per Cents per 

ton-mile 
Ordinary earth, light traffic, average condition . 9.5 
Best earth, packed by use, average condition . 9.2 

Ordinary gravel, average condition 9.0 

Portland cement concrete pavement 7.75 

Average cost of vehicle operation over each type of road in cents per mile, as determined 
by experiments and a study of actual cost records. Trucks vary greatly in weight; con- 
sequently, figures for trucks are in terms of ton-miles. To get total cost per mile for any 
truck, multiply the figures in the table by the weight of the truck plus the average load. 
From this it may be seen that a loaded two-and-a-half-ton truck, with pneumatic tires, 
weighing five tons with load, may be operated at a saving of 8.5 cents a mile over con- 
crete rather than over gravel. At this rate the saving in a year's time, for a mileage of 
20,000 would be $1,700. 



ton-mile 


mile 


bus -mile 


9.95 


12.6 


29.6 


9.50 


12.0 


27.8 


9.40 


11.8 


27.8 


7.70 


9.3 


22.5 



Ton-Miles per Gallon on Different Surfaces 

Fuel economy was the subject of 



a study made by the Iowa State 
College Experiment Station, at 
Ames, Iowa, under the direction of 
Prof. T. R. Agg and Prof. W. L. 
Foster. In this case the summary is 
given in terms of ton-miles per 
gallon of gasoline, a heavy aviation 



army truck being used with a gross 
load of 8 tons and net load of 3.5 tons. 



Road 


Ton- miles 


Type 


per gallon 


Concrete . 


30.6 


Brick, monolithic 


29.7 


Bitulithic . 


23.4 


Gravel . . 


21.2 






REFERENCE BOOK 



1 934 



29 



LABOR GETS 91 CENTS OF THE 
CONCRETE ROAD DOLLAR 




; sy.y.-.v.v.v.v.- ..,..., ,. ^^mm^mic^.-TTi^T^-. 



TO 

LABOR 

on the 

Job and 

Incidental 

Work 



117* 

TO 

LABOR 

Cement 
6 Steel 

Mills 
Quarries 

etc 



17.5« 

TO 
LABOR 

FREIGHT 



HIK'IH!) 



19.6 * 

TO 
LABOR 

FUEL 

MATERIALS 

and 

SUPPLIES 



23.6* 

TO 
LABOR 

REPAIRS 

DEPRECIATION 

REDISTRIBUTION 

ITEMS. 



miiMBfciikfatef 




THIS chart reveals that workers 
get directly and indirectly but 
altogether quite promptly, all but 
a few cents of the road dollar. The 
chart is based on a survey of em- 
ployment costs in concrete road 
building made by the U. S. Bureau 
of Public Roads. 

How labor is benefited may be 
judged by the fact that two train- 
loads of materials, of 50 cars each, 
are needed to build one mile of 
concrete pavement. These mater- 
ials, of which only a fifth or a sixth 
is cement, must be mined or quar- 
ried, manufactured or processed, 
and transported to the site of the 
new road. 

Of each $1,000 received by the 
contractor, he pays $186 directly 
to men on the road job and inci- 
dental workers. 

Of the remaining $814, labor 
receives $724 through mills, quar- 
ries, sand, gravel and crushed stone 
plants, equipment makers, railroads, 
fuel producers and so on. 

Since 75 to 100 per cent of the 
materials actually going into the 
road are locally produced, the bene- 



fit to local labor is large and direct. 

The high return to labor is credited 
by Thomas H. MacDonald, chief 
of the Bureau, "to the fact that 
there are no intrinsically valuable 
materials used in road building." 

Because of the requirement for 
raw materials and the need for such 
large quantities, few if any indus- 
tries offer so great a return to labor 
as road construction. And the 
return is widespread — not purely 
local — to the benefit of workers in 
many industries over wide areas. 

For these reasons, highway con- 
struction was made a major outlet 
for PWA funds in the battle against 
unemployment. Because of pressing 
highway needs and the ability to 
quickly draft plans, state highway 
departments were able to keep 
more men at work for much of the 
time than were employed in all 
other types of PWA construction. 

Aside from improving road sur- 
faces, supplementary structures, 
such as rail-highway grade separ- 
ations, highway grade separations 
and bridges also require workers 
in large numbers. 



30 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 



DIVERSION OF MOTOR TAXES 



IN the last seven years a total of 
$445,000,000 of license fee and 
gas tax money has been diverted 
from state highway construction 
and used for general government 
purposes. 

Beyond that, counties diverted 
a total of $105,000,000 during 1932, 
1933 and 1934 from refunds of state 
motor taxes. 

Therefore, during the seven-year 
period, $550,000,000 of the money 
paid in by motorists through taxes 
expressly designed for better and 
safer highways was not used for 
that purpose. 

This diverted money came 
directly out of funds available for 
new construction. Before money 
can be allocated to new work, large, 
unavoidable outlays must be made 
to meet administrative costs, 
financing and other fixed charges 
and repair and servicing of roads 
already built. 

In terms of construction, all this 
diversion deprived the country of 
some 10,000 rail-highway grade 
separations or more than 20,000 
miles of first class roads. 

The estimated diversion in 1934 
of $135,000,000 from state con- 
struction funds and of $40,000,000 
from local funds, meant the loss 
of the equivalent of 400,000 jobs, 
or support for 1,200,000 people. 

Diversion is made more serious 
by the current trend to reduce 
motor taxes, in many states with 
conspicuous disregard for road 
needs. Falling motor tax revenues 
through tax reduction, coupled with 
diversion, has placed several states 
in the position of having little or 
no money for new state construc- 



tion. In fact, some states apparently 
will be unable to meet present and 
near-future Federal Aid road 
requirements. 

While the Federal Government 
and many states look to highways 
as a major means of providing jobs, 
those states in which diversion is 
practiced are in effect nullifying 
employment efforts. 

During the last few years, actual 
results of highway construction, as 
measured in terms of new highways 
and safety structures, have been 
considerably less than before the 
depression ; this despite the supreme 
attempt of the Federal Government 
to stimulate employment on 
highways. 

As shown in the last few Con- 
gressional road hearings, there is 
a growing feeling that the states 
themselves should carry the brunt 
of highway construction. Recent 
Federal legislation portends an 
early return to the basis where 
states must match Federal road 
money dollar for dollar. 

The Federal road appropriation 
bill of 1933 declares: "It is unfair 
and unjust to tax motor vehicle 
transportation unless the proceeds 
of such taxation are applied to the 
construction, improvement or 
maintenance of highways." 

And then the statute further 
enacts that the states that divert 
any more motor tax money than 
was authorized by their laws when 
the bill was enacted may have their 
shares of Federal money reduced 
by as much as a third. 

That diversion is definitely 
against the public welfare is shown 
by actual road and street needs. 



REFERENCE BOOK . 1934 



3 1 



Rail-highway grade separations, 
highway grade separations, elimin- 
ation of curves, smoothing of roads 
and streets, and widening of con- 
gested roads and streets are all part 
of the gigantic job that faces the 
gas tax and license fee. 

In regard to improvement of road 
surfaces, there is still much to do, 
according to the records H 

shown the condition of the 

highways, which carry Up 
ward 



traffic. The table is based on im- 
provement up to January 1, 1934. 

Condition of Main State 

Highways 

Mile. 
High Class 120,000 

(Concrete, brick, bituminous 
and other types with stable 
bases) 
Intermediate Type 

tace-treated gravel, 
i i 
let 



State Systems 






DIVERSION OF STATE HIGHWAY FUNDS COMPARED 
WITH NEW STATE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION OUTLAYS 






i 



1400,000 «»» 






1200.000.000 _ 



0.000 — 








INDEX 



AIRPORTS 

Page 
Concrete at 21 

CEMENT 

Growth of Industry 3 

Per Capita Use, by States . . 11 

Production Statistics 6-7 

Uses, Distribution of 12 



HIGHWAYS 

Concrete Pavement Yardage, U. S., 
awards by years 13 

Concrete Pavements, by States . 14 15 

Concrete Streets, by Cities . 18-19 

Cost of One Mile of Road 26 

Early Concrete Pavements 20 

Federal Aid 16 17 

Labor Gets 91 cents of Concrete Road 
Dollar .29 



Maintenance Data 
Maint< nance, Hlinoii 

Maintenance, New J' 
Maintenance, New V 
Maintenance, Ohio 
Maintenance, Oregon 
Maintenance, Texas 
Real Cost, The 
Research . 



22-25 

23 
24 
23 
24 
23 
24 
26 
12 



HIGHWAYS (Cont'd) 

Page 

Road Dollar 29 

Roads, Streets and Alleys, U. S. . 14-15 

Steep Grades 20 

Ton-Miles per Gallon, by Pavement 
Types 28 

20- Year Costs, Gravel and Concrete . 27 

Vehicle Operating Costs, Various Pave- 
ment Types 28 

MOTOR TAXES 

Diversion of 30-31 

PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 
IN THE U. S. 

Growth of 3 

Facts About, Salient 4 

Industrial Statistics, 1870-1933 6-7 

Materials, Required Annually 4 

Plants, Location of. 2 

Price Comparisons, 1920-1933 8 

Production, by States. . 5 

Production and Capacity, 1920-1933 9 

Production and Price, 1920-1933 8 

Railroad Shipments, Rank of Industry 
in .... . 5 

Safety in the Cement Industry. 10 

Shipments, and Volume of Construc- 
tion, 1920-1933 p 






M-IC«— }.<■